Evaluate the types of employee testing that companies may require that are discussed in the text. Determine the two tests that you consider the most important. Support your reasoning.  From the e-Activity, take the test and examine your results. Determine whether you believe this type of personality test is beneficial to an organization. Support your position. 

Evaluate the types of employee testing that companies may require that are discussed in the text. Determine the two tests that you consider the most important. Support your reasoning. 

From the e-Activity, take the test and examine your results. Determine whether you believe this type of personality test is beneficial to an organization. Support your position. 

Evaluate the types of employee testing that companies may require that are discussed in the text.  Determine the two test that you consider the most important.  Support your reasoning.

From the e-Activity, take the test and examine your results.  Determ;ine whether you believe this type of personality test is beneficial to an organization. Support your position.

Compare and contrast the structured interview, situational inter view, and behavioral interview.  Determine which type of interview would be more beneficial when interviewing applicants.  Support your selection.

In the selection of the candidate, determine if the manager should make the final choice or if others should be included in the final decision.  Support your position.

Compare and contrast the structured interview, situational interview, and behavioral interview. Determine which type of interview would be more beneficial when interviewing applicants. Support your selection.

In the selection of the candidate, determine if the manager should make the final choice or if others should be included in the final decision. Support your position. 

Determine why organizations can have higher productivity when top managers encourage supervisors to set goals, assess performance, and provide feedback to employees. Support your answer with examples. Then, describe the experience you have had with performance appraisals and how your performance has been influenced by them.

From the e-Activity, rate the importance of measuring performance and providing an opportunity for feedback. Support your position.

“Performance Measurement” Please respond to the following:

  • Imagine you are working at an ice cream shop. It is the middle of summer, the shop’s busiest season, and the electricity goes out during a storm. Rank the actions that you should take in order of importance, as your performance will be measured regarding your immediate actions.

Assess the advantages and / or disadvantages of having more than one source of performance measurement within a company. Support your position with examples. Of the performance measurement sources you provided, select one that you believe your current or previous company could benefit from and explain why.

Individual Assessment 4: Enhancing the benefits and understanding systems

Individual Assessment 4: Enhancing the benefits and understanding systems
Assessment value: 15% (individual work)
All assessments can be found in the Assessment folder in Blackboard.
It is essential that when embarking on a project, a detailed investigation is undertaken to identify
and maximise the potential benefits, to identify the potential adverse issues as early as possible,
and to incorporate measures to mitigate their consequences.
For example, the overall EWB Challenge consists of a total of nine individual projects. Therefore,
the actions undertaken in relation to an individual project should not adversely affect any of the
other projects. This requires a systems approach in order to understand the linkages and
relationships between specific projects and the influential factors which play a key role.
An individual report should be built on the previous assessments and readings undertaken and
lectures conducted.
Scope of the report
You should specifically focus on the selected EWB project. Your report should adhere to the following
outline and use the headings provided (content provided in italics):
• Introduction
o Tell the executive team very briefly what is covered in the report
• Systems Analysis
Preferably in a table format:
o Identify the possible linkages and relationships between your project and the other
(major) EWB project topic areas
o Identify any potential beneficial or adverse impacts of your design strategy on the other
project areas
o If there are positive or beneficial issues, what can you do to further enhance their
potential benefits and thereby increase the success of the project
• Discussion and Conclusion
o Adopting a holistic view, briefly discuss the contribution of the selected project to the
overall EWB Challenge
Some of the issues that you discuss may overlap with what was presented in the previous
assessments. However, you should use this as an opportunity to further improve what has been
discussed previously.
New material should be introduced at this stage as your own understanding would further expand
with new knowledge being introduced in class.
Ensuring a good mark
Strictly adhere to the report format given. Be succinct and precise. Using dot points in conjunction
with supporting sentences is acceptable where appropriate. Seek out good quality resources from a
range of different types, primarily from the academic and industry literature. Be selective in your
use of popular media and try to find the original sources.
Wikipedia is not an appropriate technical reference. It can, however, be used as a resource to
gather basic information only and then to identify more appropriate technical resources that can
be referenced.
Submission details
You shall submit a soft copy online, in PDF format, through BlackBoard (DO NOT SUBMIT A
HARDCOPY AS IT WILL NOT BE MARKED). Online submission is via BlackBoard by clicking ‘Learning
Resources’ which will take you to the Unit Map which all of you should be familiar. Look for
‘Individual Work 4’ and ‘View Assignment’. You should now be able to upload your assignment. You
should now be able to upload your assignment.
The due date can be found in the Unit Map on Blackboard, as noted above. If you do not submit your
assignment by the due date, it will not be marked and you will receive a grade of 1 (or 0%). If
circumstances prevent you from completing your assignment by the due date, you can apply for an
extension via the stipulated QUT procedure. If you do not have an approved extension (via Student
Services only), you should submit the work you have completed by the due date and it will be
marked against the assessment criteria. These requirements reflect the importance of meeting
deadlines in professional practice.
More information can be found at
https://www.student.qut.edu.au/studying/assessment/late- assignments-andextensions.
Report format
• Maximum two page length excluding references (and cover page if used). Even if you go
over the page limit, only the first two pages of the report will be given a mark;
• The referencing style should be QUT specified Harvard style. For guidance, please
refer to http://www.citewrite.qut.edu.au/
• Wikipedia is not an appropriate technical reference. However, it can be used as a resource
to gather basic information and to identify more appropriate technical resources;
• Please use the headings provided under “Scope of the report”
• Font: 12pt Times New Roman;
• Single column;
• 2.5 cm margins on all four sides with single line spacing.
QUT considers plagiarism as a very serious offence and significant penalties apply. We will take steps
to report such cases for appropriate action.
Please note that if you use material from another publication or webpage, the original
documentation must be appropriately cited and referenced. Failure to do so will be considered as
plagiarism. If you are copying material directly, word for word, the text needs to be given in
quotation marks. Copying from other students reports is totally unacceptable. Poorly executed
paraphrasing can also constitute plagiarism.

Your case study should focus on the following: Summarize the case, including a description of the offense(s), the investigation, and the outcome (such as the trial and sentencing). Analyze the psychological history or path that took the criminal to commit his or her crime(s). Describe the psychological, behavioral, environmental, and cognitive factors that you believe led to the offender’s criminality. Consider the various theories we have discussed in class including the psychoanalytic/psychodynamic theory, the behaviorist/social learning theory, the cognitive/social cognitive theory, and the humanist and interactionist theories, and provide examples. The goal here is to provide an analysis of the psychological history or path that took the criminal to commit his or her crime(s).

Your case study should focus on the following: Summarize the case, including a description of the offense(s), the investigation, and the outcome (such as the trial and sentencing). Analyze the psychological history or path that took the criminal to commit his or her crime(s). Describe the psychological, behavioral, environmental, and cognitive factors that you believe led to the offender’s criminality. Consider the various theories we have discussed in class including the psychoanalytic/psychodynamic theory, the behaviorist/social learning theory, the cognitive/social cognitive theory, and the humanist and interactionist theories, and provide examples. The goal here is to provide an analysis of the psychological history or path that took the criminal to commit his or her crime(s).

Explain the impact of social, psychological, and biological theories of aggression on your chosen criminal’s behavior. Describe the crime typology. Did the offender have a personality disorder that might have played a role in the criminal behavior? If so, explain and provide examples and supporting references. Discuss the laws that are in place for protecting individuals with mental disorders. Describe whether your case study was a homicide offender or sexual offender. Discuss the typology (i.e., single murderer, serial murderer, spree murderer, mass murderer, child molester, or rapist). If applicable, discuss whether your offender was given a competence to stand trial evaluation, or was found to be not guilty by reason of insanity. Examine the ethical issues concerning evaluation and treatment of competence to stand trial and not guilty by reason of insanity cases.

Discuss the ethical issues surrounding the case. Support the outcome of the case with your analysis or provide support of the alternative. The paper must be eight to ten pages in length and formatted according to APA style. You must use five to eight scholarly sources from the Ashford University Library, other than the textbook, to support your claims. Cite your sources within the text of your paper and on the reference page. For information regarding APA, including samples and tutorials, visit the Ashford Writing Center, located within the Learning Resources tab on the left navigation toolbar. Writing the Final Case Study The Final Case Study: Must be eight to ten double-spaced pages in length, and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Must include a title page with the following: Title of paper Student’s name Course name and number Instructor’s name Date submitted Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement. Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought. Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis. Must use five to eight scholarly sources . Must document all sources in APA style.

The goals of Essay 3 are to form and effectively articulate an argument; to use your own knowledge and analysis, along with outside sources, to support your argument; and to integrate sources into your writing smoothly and accurately. The assignment is simple. In this paper you will make your argument about the topic that you chose in Week 2 (see the “Choosing a Topic” document for more information). You cannot change your topic once you have completed Essay 2. Your goal will be to convince your reader that your perspective on this subject is the right one. You will use your own knowledge on the subject as well as evidence from the research that you have done to support your argument. You will also address and refute at least one opposing viewpoint on your topic.

The goals of Essay 3 are to form and effectively articulate an argument; to use your own knowledge
and analysis, along with outside sources, to support your argument; and to integrate sources into
your writing smoothly and accurately.
The assignment is simple. In this paper you will make your argument about the topic that you chose
in Week 2 (see the “Choosing a Topic” document for more information). You cannot change
your topic once you have completed Essay 2. Your goal will be to convince your reader that
your perspective on this subject is the right one. You will use your own knowledge on the subject as
well as evidence from the research that you have done to support your argument. You will also
address and refute at least one opposing viewpoint on your topic.
Based on your knowledge of your topic and the readings that you have done this week, you will
approach this essay in whatever way you see fit to effectively make your argument. But you should
keep the following guidelines in mind:
– Your audience will be a variety of interested people. Some may agree with you, but others
may not. Your job is to convince them of your point of view. Your audience will probably
not be experts on your topic, so will want to give some background (probably in the
introduction) to make sure your readers have the same understanding of your topic as you.
– At some point in your essay you should address at least one opposing view of your topic.
You might do this throughout your paper, or you might dedicate one portion of your paper
to this task.
– Because this is a topic that is personal to you, you will likely need to use “I” and use your
personal knowledge as evidence. However, you should not say “I think,” “I believe,” etc.
State your point of view with confidence!
– Give an introduction to your topic and its importance. Remember that this is a topic that is
important to you, but that your reader hopes to learn something, too.
– You should clearly and directly articulate your argument, probably in a thesis statement that
will fall at the end of the introduction.
Requirements of this paper:
– You will use 3-5 good quality sources to support your argument. At least one of these
should be a scholarly or peer-reviewed source, such as those found in the library or on the
library website. At least one of these sources should address an opposing viewpoint.
– Your paper must include a Works Cited page and proper in-text citations.
– As always, use 12 point Times New Roman font and MLA formatting. See guidelines for
MLA formatting beginning on page 524 of Rules for Writers.

The Stanford Prison Experiment

Stanford prison experiment ethics

Ethics are significant in any research involving human participants and animal subjects. They ensure that the participants are safe and also establish sensible boundaries of the research. In order to ensure this, psychologists abide by the code of ethics and conduct act which highlights four main principles; competence, respect, responsibility and integrity (Babbie, 2010). The following are six values which are considered to ensure that a research is ethical; informed consent, right to withdraw, confidentiality, deception, debrief and protection from harm. The Stanford prison experiment is said to be the 8th most unethical psychological study conducted. However, from my analysis based on the above principles and values, I do not consider the research to be unethical as it is regarded.  The research should not be regarded as unethical because of its shocking results. Based on the value of informed consent, each participant was informed about the limitation of their rights and living in minimally acceptable conditions. This was done through an information sheet. They signed a consent form and those students who showed signs of anxiety were discouraged from participating. Every participant also had the right to withdraw through the stipulated procedures.  This was misinterpreted by a prisoner who tried to leave but he misinterpreted what he was told about following the procedures. Initially, the participants knew of their right to withdraw. The study information was coded. This ensured confidentiality. The students who were known by their ID number remained anonymous during the experiment.  Since the students were informed about their unusual rights being taken way, there was no any aspect of deception. They were also informed about the rules to be followed as well as the nature of the study. The researchers didn’t anticipate the behavior that occurred in the prison. So, they didn’t deceive the participants. After the study all participants were given full debrief about the study expectations and why the study was terminated before time. There was also an analysis of psychological state. Finally, initial interviews were performed In order to establish those who were unfit for the study. This was aimed at reducing potential risks. Many risks which occurred during the study were not anticipated, the psychological state of participants was tested. Distress among participants at the end of the study was temporary and it was considered acceptable. Based on this analysis, I conclude that The Stanford Prison Experiment was ethical (McLeod, 2008).


McLeod, S. A. (2008). Zimbardo – Stanford Prison Experiment. Retrieved from: http://www.simplypsychology.org/zimbardo.html

Babbie, E. (2010). The practice of social research. Cengage Learning– Page 66

Space shuttle challenger disaster 1986

Space shuttle challenger disaster 1986

Section 1

Communication is a major contributing factor into aviation incidents. Accurate information is necessary and this is the importance of good communication in the aviation management (Philip, 2011).

Fluency in English communication among aviation staff leads to effective air traffic control as a result of good radio communication. Team work is necessary in getting airline passengers safely and happily from one destination to another. The airline industry employs different people. Success in their duties is made possible by use of English in communication. Most crew members in many countries are allowed to be conversant with English as the most common second language known internationally.

Use of English as a second language when flying has its pitfalls. In English, some words have dual meanings and can easily be misunderstood. This may lead to miscommunication among flight controllers and crew members. Paralinguistic factors like stress, voice intonation, hesitation or rate of delivery change the meaning and form of sentences by acting across individual words of a sentence or individual sounds. This may result to miscommunication (Veronika, Alfred, Ruby & Roswell, 2008).

Section 2

Tenerife air disaster

After thorough investigations, it was concluded that probably the cause of the crash was due to ambiguity of English language which made the KLM controllers to believe that they had been cleared for takeoff. Inadequate language and English communication problems led to the crash (Macarthur, 1996).

Section 3

ICAO implemented its language proficiency standards in 2008 among its ready member states. Efficiency in radio-telephony communications in the aircraft industry lead to safe takeoff, flight and landing of airplanes. Crew members and plane controllers should be effective in communication in order to make successful radio-telephony communications (Civil aviation authority of New Zealand, 2011)_


Veronika, P.O. Alfred, M. H. Ruby, H. & Roswell, N.M. (2008). Pilot English Language Proficiency and the Prevalence of Communication Problems at Five U.S. Air Route Traffic Control Centers. Civil Aerospace Medical Institute; Federal Aviation Administration; Oklahoma City, OK 73125

ICAO. (2013). ICAO language proficiency requirements technical seminar. ICAO headquarters, Montreal

Philip, S. (2011). Flight path: Aviation English for Pilots and ATCOs Student’s Book. Pp-6, Cambridge university press

Bartelski, J. (2001). Disasters in the air: mysterious air disasters explained. Airlife.ISBN978-1-84037-204-5.

Civil aviation authority of New Zealand. (2011). Radiotelephony manual; Advisory circular AC91-9 &AC 172-1. Revision 8. Civil Aviation Authority; Wellington 6140

 Huang, J. (2009). Aviation Safety through the Rule of Law: ICAO’s Mechanisms and Practices. Kluwer Law International

Macarthur, J. (1996). Air disaster. 2. [From 1977 to 1991]. Aerospace Publications; PP.1-218

Captivity literature


The three traditional components of rhetoric are purpose, audience, and occasion. When we talk of purpose, we talk of what the essay is trying to accomplish. In this narrative, Rowlandson recounts the stages of her odyssey in twenty different journeys. (Rowlandson 23-650). In this paper, I am going to discuss purpose in Rowlandson’s captivity narrative.

Summary of the narrative

In her narrative, Mary Rowlandson’s explains her experiences under the hands of Native Americans during the king Philipp’s war which occurred in 1676. She and her children were captured by Native Americans. Her youngest daughter, six years old, was assassinated before her. He recounts the mistreatments she went through while under captivity and during her return. Each day, the Native Americans mistreated her.  She found hope in a bible which she had been given by an Indian.  Through this journey of pain and misery, Mary Rowlandson didn’t lose hope. It reached a day when she was sold to her houseman. This is what made her see life in another perspective. She started having hope. The secret of her journey was perseverance. She would always find a way to overcome every obstacle that came before her.

Purpose of the narrative

Mary Rowlandson’s work can be seen as one of the earliest and most popular narratives of its type. Though more is unknown about her life, before and even after captivity, she re-tells of her trials with the heathens and this gives readers a fairly clear picture of her. The following are aspects represent the purpose of Mary Rowlandson in writing this narrative.

She reflects contemporary attitudes toward the natives

From her narrative, we see that Mary Rowlandson does not like the Indians. They killed her friends and family, burnet her home and took her to captivity. It’s difficult to ascertain how much f her bitterness is based on her experience and how much is based on cultural conditioning. In her characterization of the Indians, Mary Rowlandson says that the attack was brutal. The people who tried to escape were tortured and murdered by the Indians. For example, Mary asserts, “he begged of them his life, promising them money; but they would not hearken to him, but knocked him in the head, and stripped him naked, and split open his bowels.” She explains more on the mistreatment of other people who tried to escape and how the Indians were merciless not even to allow tend to her injured child.  In this description, Mary Rowlandson stereotypes the Indians as liars and she compares them to the devil who was a liar even from the beginning. She compares the wicked look of the Indians “heathens’ with the lovely faces of Christians. Some of the words she uses to stereotype Indians are ‘enemy,’ merciless heathens’ etc. (Rowlandson 234).

Atypical captivity

Another purpose of this narrative is to show atypical captivity. It’s hard to discover that Mary Rowlandson was not treated as much worse as the other captives/prisoners. The others received more brutality than her. Upon speaking with the first Indians, they assure her that she won’t be hurt she just follows them without causing trouble. If we compare this we how she described about the Indians knocking people at the head, torturing and murdering those who resisted; for example, burning of the pregnant woman, we see that she received much less brutality. She was not subjected to what most of the people were subjected to. Though she faces the cruelty of her mistress, she is shown kindness by her master who promises to sell her back to her husband. Also, there are other squaws who give her food, other Indians who pay her with food and also she receives other tradable goods for her sewing. Mary Rowlandson is not tortured, she is not solely beaten and she does not suffer rape. From this, we ask ourselves whether her treatment is what we would expect from savages (Yothers 49)

Expression of Puritanism

Her narrative is an example of many aspects of puritan theology. This may be seen in the following; Mary Rowlandson makes us understand that God’s redemptive power. She says that the saving power from God is as strong and great. This is through how she recalls of Daniel being saved form the lion’s den. He asserts that God is omnipotent and can do what pleases Him. This claim is evidenced in Rowlandson’s radical change in her spiritual life. She thanks God for the trials she ahs gone through and says that the same have made her realize that they are vanities of vanities. He makes us understand that we should rely and depend on God fully.

Through her narrative, she thanks God for every positive thing which happens to her life. In this we understand God’s protective powers. After she applies an Oak leaf poultice to her wound and receives healing, she recognizes that fortune as the blessing from God. It is God who keeps her away from despair and suicide. She explains that it is God who keeps her comfortable in the night and protects her from sexual abuse.

Rowlandson makes us know that God works directly through the scripture. During her captivity, Mary Rowlandson’s source of support and comfort is the bible. For example, she reads the bible stories about David and Job which are a source of continual hope in her everyday life as a captive. It is God who showed her particular bible verses which she needed in her day to day life. In her narrative, she says, “. . .

Rowlandson shows the fear of the new world

Just like other puritans, she is not sure how far the colonialists are going on the wildernesses. Though Lancaster was a frontier settlement, the settlers were pushing far from their established towns.  She and other captives learn about the natural world and they gather food for themselves. They also get used to eating meat which formerly would upset their stomachs. This knowledge seems helpful to Rowlandson. However, it is a source of anxiety and guilty. This is because Mary Rowlandson fears leaving behind the life of civilization.


Mary Rowlandson wrote this narrative when the society placed limits on the roles of a puritan woman. During this time, women were dominated by men and thus they were expected to serve and be answerable to men. For example, according to Richard Baxter, wives were to ‘forsake father and mother and cleave to you’. This means that women could not serve their purposes as Mary did by writing her narrative. By writing this, Mary Rowlandson was understood as disobeying the gender roles (Burnett 81). Through writing this narrative, Mary Rowlandson’ purpose was to demonstrated to the society that she was an example of what the same society considered to be a true puritan women.


Reflects the role of women

As written in the narrative, Mary Rowlandson’s behavior reflects the role of women. As she meditates upon her children, the feminine role of maternity is depicted in this narrative. Rowlandson is caring towards her children, she cares for Sarah, her youngest daughter until she dies and causes a lot of distress and abnormal behavior to her. She almost wishes death but God makes her overcome the trial and martyred herself to suffering. Trading is another role of women depicted in Mary Rowlandson’s narrative. However, Rowlandson does not acknowledge the political and military roles of Wetamoo (Potter 161). Wetamoo refuses to accept a political role and dismisses it as an occupation of men in her society. This shows the narrative’s purpose to show the role of women in the society, especially during the 17th century (Ebersole 56).

Equating appearance and status

During the 15th century, race was not fully a source of superiority. Superiority lay in the belief of greater political organization, culture and civilization (Potter 156). In her narrative, Mary Rowlandson equates status and appearance. For example, she says, “When they came near, there was a vast difference between the lovely Faces of Christians, and the foul looks of those Heathens” (Rowlandson 159). This was the source of his abhorrence for the Native Americans. She less values the Native American people and their culture. Being a puritan, everything which was not Christina was of less value. She calls them heathens as she compares their behaviors with that of the Christians.

Realization of change

Mary Rowlandson’s narrative tries to show us how change realization and embracement is important in order for one to survive. Change is inevitable and thus we should respond positively to it. Mary Rowlandson basically lost everything by an Indian attack on her Lancaster town, Massachusetts in 1675. She was held prisoner and spent eleven weeks with the Wampanoag Indians as they traveled to safety. Rowlandson’s work shows her personality as she strangles to recognize her identity. The idea of food and remove are metaphors which led to Mary Rowlandson’s repression of depression, anger and realization of change throughout her journey and particularly during the end of her captivity. The idea food as an aspect in change realization is used in the narrative. This is because it is the only essential thing Mary required in everyday life in order to survive. Being a minister’s wife while at home, Rowlandson was a housewife who lacked nothing. She had plenty of good food, clothing ad shelter. In the narrative, we can see how she views the Indian’ choice of food; this changes throughout her journey of suffering and this also relates to the change she undergoes.  For example, after losing her family, she had to follow the Indians in order to survive. The Indian’s diet was different from what Rowlandson was used to eating. She refused to eat anything during the first week of her captivity because she describes the Indian food as filthy trash and that she could starve and die before she ate such things (Rowlandson 306). However, as hunger continues to haunt her more and more, she represses her anger in order to survive. During the seven remove, she changes her views about the Indian food and she got two ears of the Indian corn which she dint want to give it up. Through this shift of food preference and change experienced by Rowlandson, she tries to make us/readers understand how change is important for one to survive (Scarbrough 98).

Highlighting history of women in colonial society

Mary Rowlandson’s narrative is noteworthy because of its significance in serving as a means for a woman to have voice in the puritan society. Her captivity narrative was of purpose in highlighting the history of women in the colonial society. Rowlandson’s narrative is a firsthand in accounting for the struggles of a puritan woman. Through her experiences as a captive, readers get to know about the position of women in the society and the pains they went through during colonial times such as sexual abuse, murder and loss of children. By recording her captivity, Mary Rowlandson demonstrated the restrictive roles of women during the seventeenth century. Though she dint realize it, she acted as a spokesperson for the women of her society (Breitwieser 678).

Reaffirming the male position in Puritan society

Mary Rowlandson’s narrative demonstrated the behaviors expected of women in puritan society. The narrative also reinforced the patriarchal society of puritan New England. The patriarchy of the family was composed of husband, who was the dominant member. All people in the family had roles to fulfill. The wife was above the children but below the man. In her captivity narrative, Mary Rowlandson wrote about how the Indians took her children from her. How she lost her family. She said, “All was gone, my husband gone…, my children gone, my relations and friends gone, our house and home, and all our comforts within door and without, all was gone except my life and I knew not but the next moment might go too.” (Rowlandson 59). According to Rowlandson, the attack destroyed the social structure of the family, all she had disappeared and she was subjected to a new and strange social order which was far different form her usual social patriarchy. Her narrative warns readers about the dangers of shifting from the structured male-dominated patriarchy. Rowlandson’s narrative was not only served as a significant role in the society for women but also men.  This narrative reinforced the social order and beliefs of puritan men. If you read her narrative, you will notice that Mary Rowlandson is not calling for any change in puritan culture. She agreed with the social structure and the customs of the culture. She misses this while in captivity. Her work is not feminist.

Show the Blurred Line between Civilization and Savagery
Though her forced journey from civilization to wilderness ends with a triumphant return to civilization; Mary’s understanding of ‘civilized’ and ‘non-civilized’ changes. At the beginning, she views civilization as something which is not wilderness or savage. In her narrative, she claims the savagery of Indians is related to the natural world around them. For example, the Indians eat bear and hoarse meat, live in wigwams and spend their days travelling through swamps and forests. Due to this, she sees them as aggressive savages. However, as the narrative progresses, the differences between Indians and settlers become minimal. For example, Wettimore is as hopeless as a white woman, ‘praying Indians’ appear to have transformed to Christianity. She makes out her uncivilized deeds. This is when she starts to eat and take pleasure in the Indian food and she sometimes behaves like the Indians. Her civilization and savagery views are not much different during this period. Her former view of the world which was based on puritans and Indians, good and evil, savagery and civilization is replaced by another world view which is more ambiguous.
The sovereignty of goodness of God, a narrative of the captivity and restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson is a narrative about her experiences while under captivity of the Native Americans. This essay has explored purpose as a one of traditional rhetorical component and how it has been useful in this narrative. Mary Rowlandson is a female sufferer, innocent and humble. Her kidnapping expresses the puritan society’s beliefs and customs as well as the social structure. The narrative also identifies for its readers the worst fears. It makes sense to the readers through its puritan worldview, plays off their prejudices and also makes them understand that one ……
Works cited

Potter, Tiffany. “Writing Indigenous Femininity: Mary Rowlandson’s Narrative of Captivity.” Eighteenth-Century Studies 36.2 (2003): 153-167.

Yothers, Brian. “Global Captivities: Robert Knox’s an Historical Relation of Ceylon and the New England Captivity Narrative Tradition.” Journeys: The International Journal Of Travel And Travel Writing 8.1-2 (2007): 41-55.

Burnett, Tamy. “Fred’s Captivity Narrative: American Contexts For (Re) Writing Community Identity from Mary Rowlandson to Angel.” The Literary Angel: Essays on Influences and Traditions Reflected in the Joss Whedon Series. 69-84. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2010.

Rowlandson, Mary. Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson. [HTML]. Project Gutenberg, 2009

Scarbrough, Elizabeth. Mary Rowlandson: The Captive Voice. Undergraduate Review. 2011; 7:121-125. Available at: http://vc.bridgew.edu/undergrad_rev/vol7/iss1/23
Toulouse, Teresa. ‘“My Own Credit”: Strategies of Evaluation in Mary Rowlandson’s Captivity Narrative’. American Literature. 1992; 64 (4): 655-676

Breitwieser, Mitchell Robert. American Puritanism and the Defense of Mourning: Religion, Grief, and Ethnology in Mary White Rowlandson’s Captivity Narrative. University of Wisconsin Press, 1990.

Ebersole, Gary. Captured by texts: puritan to postmodern images of Indian captivity. Virginia: The University Press of Virginia, 1995.

Positive and negative impacts of Louisiana subsidies and the effects on culture and economy

Farmers around the country are now busy buying seeds and other supplies as well as getting their farming equipment in good conditions. Last year was a good boost for agriculture. We expect that this year will be more better of our mother nature permits so. Prices of commodities are still high. Our leaders in Washington are deciding on whether to tackle the 2012 farm bill during this year or to leave it to the next congress. One major topic of this debate every five years of government is the issue of farm subsidies. The question is; are these subsidies necessary, are they of more good than harm or is the system of distribution abused? This white paper discusses on the geographic situation of American farmers, how subsidies are distributed, Louisiana’s devastating hurricanes and how subsidies work in America (Louisiana) in respect to the positive and negative impacts of the subsidies on the culture and economy (Spitze, Harold and Joyce 23)


Facts about American subsidies

  • Agricultural subsidies were introduced in the US in order to provide economic stability for all farmers during the time of depression in order to ensure that the domestic food supply for Americans remained steady.
  • Presently, the government of the United States pays approximately $20billion in cash every year for owners and farmers of farm land. The government paid about $250 billion in farm subsidies between 1995 and 2005.

Economic geographical situation of American farmers

American economists can provide essential information about the nature of the economic phenomena which is affecting employment levels, interest rates, net farm income, wage rates, commodity prices, exports, imports and land prices. They can also help us understand what is happening, when it happens and why it is happening. However, the same economists are not better than the analysis of any other well-informed person on the street in foretelling the future. Subsidies are given in higher percentage to benefit all farmers and land owners. Economists can only see the importance of these subsidies as they are being effective in commercial production. But, what about the small scale farmer in Louisiana who not only receives almost nothing of these subsidies, struggles, under effect of great hurricanes to farm and still lives in poverty? When will these subsidies reach to them and be of importance as intended by the government?

The economy of the united is going down that is, if not an outright recession. Some economists believe that economic recovery is underway and that the economy has avoided recession. I still believe that the economy is in decline. Economic weakness could weaken consumer optimism. A part form good farming technology and access to capital (subsidies) the economic rules of farming have changed, however, the soils, climate and infrastructure have not changed. This has created a competitive disadvantage for agriculture. Public institutions pursue less of any research that might empower the individual farmer to manage their farming operations more efficiently in order to enhance productivity and reduce dependency eon costly inputs economic rules of farming have also changed.

How subsidies are distributed

The distribution of US agricultural subsidies has received criticism. This is because they are not uniformly distributed. Subsidies geographically concentrated, they concentrated on relatively few producers and few crops. Most of the agriculture in the United States receives little or no subsidies. Farm subsidies target large farms.

Legislators who promote subsidies are based on the misconception that farm subsidies are important as they stabilize the income of poor family members who are vulnerable to unpredictable weather and fluctuation of crop prices. If this was true, then the federal government would make the income of every full-time farmer in the united sates up to 185% of the federal poverty level for just $4 billion per year. However, the reality is that the government spends approximately $20 billion per year on programs that aim at benefiting large commercial farms and agribusinesses.

Support for the US farmers is usually channeled to corporations and individuals that are far form strangles. This has been debated for years based on the fact that the congressional support for the US agriculture continues to expand. Statistics reflected by USDA show that about 45% of farm land in United States is not operated by their owners. Most agricultural owners are non-farm corporations or individuals that work or have retired from non-agriculture related activities. Approximately 15% of landlords live near their farm land. Most of the landlords live in the urban area. Based on these statistics, a question arises concerning the distribution of farm support programs. To what extent do farm subsidies lead to higher land rents and values? This should be a critical issue for both farm operators and policy makers. There is need to understand how they gain less from the various agricultural programs they keep on supporting. Who does these polices benefit. Farers cannot benefit from agricultural benefits if the polices are aimed at supporting farmers, who do not own their land when the policies are effected.

Furthermore when we talk about distribution of subsidies, small farms benefit very little. This is seen particularly after excluding conservation programs. USDA statistics clearly indicate that payments subsidy payments are poorly targeted in relation to need. The entirety of the small farmers’ income is secured off the farm. The large commercial farms pull in the government subsidies in addition to their huge agricultural profits. Small and medium farms are not relying on government subsidies to help them live a better life. They have off-farm income. This then confirms that government subsidies are neither distributed nor beneficial to those expected. I thus support secretary Vilsack’s comments that there is the need to bolster rural economies as the foundation for rural prosperity and growth, rather than relying on subsidies (Barrett 67).

If the distribution off farm subsidies is not fair as highlighted by the government, what is their use/ they are not benefitting small family farms and keeping them on land. There is thus no other justification of maintaining these subsidies. Subsidies are said to be important for production agriculture to produce safe and abundant food supply for the United States. Also they say that Commercial agriculture needs this money to be viable, the USDA numbers prove them wrong.

How subsidies work in America-Louisiana


Louisiana State is a major grower of rice. Farm subsidies have been helping the rice farmers, who are commercial farmers deal with disaster and also increase their profit. They have been pressing for the passing of the subsidies act. But, of the subsidies are meant to strengthen domestic agricultural sector and also assure domestic food supply, how will this be achievable if most of the farming is done for commercial purposes? How will the small scale farmer be assured of this domestic food supply? Subsidies only benefit the rich few under the expense of the hungry farmer in America especially in Louisiana State.

Devastating hurricanes in Louisiana

The most memorable disaster in Louisiana is the 2005 hurricane Katrina which hit the gulf eastern coast region. The disaster affected the state’s dairy, forestry, vegetable, fisheries, citrus, and sugarcane industries. Cotton and rice were affected by the excessive winds. Until today, infrastructure and communication problems exist and this has led to loss of revenue due to production loss. Prices are also low due to quality issues, changes in demand and supply and also disruption of marketing and distribution channels. There is also the problem of increased production costs and physical damage caused to agricultural infrastructure. Though subsidies are provided to compensate for disaster, this is not true. Considering the subsidies which had been invested in agriculture during this tie of disaster, how did the farmers benefit from the subsidies? No one knows when disaster strikes and the magnitude of the same. Subsidies are not an alternative to managing disaster in agriculture. A lot of government money was lost through this disaster. Farming was interrupted. Both those who had benefited from subsidies and who had not, both suffered the effect of the disaster.

Positive and negative impacts of the subsidies on the culture and economy of Louisiana State

Agricultural subsidies supplement the income of farmers. Farmers are made happy when their products are bought; there is always increased abundance of food and resources in schools, homes and restaurants. Subsidies lead to overproduction and this lowers prices of commodities at both local and global market.  Subsidies keep farmers afloat and ensure continuous production.

Subsidies create a culture where a country or a state does not depend on imports in order to feed its people. Subsidies in the united sates (Louisiana) have maintained this culture. The agricultural subsidies offered to farmers increase food production and thus availability of enough domestic food for the country’s citizens.

Subsidies in Louisiana State cause enormous economic disruptions, for example, the sugar industry. This makes the American citizens pay almost twice the world price of sugar. Farm subsidies have also led to high prices of food. Many small scale farmers in Louisiana do not own land. Most of them are immigrants; the French, the Africans and Native Americans. They suffer food hunger. This is because they cannot produce enough for them to eat. They buy domestic food all throughout. The commercial producers increase their prices in order to gain profit. The initiative designed to make poor Americans offset the high prices of food is contained in the subsidies bill which is making the prices of food to go high (Joshua and Jeffrey 15)

Young farms are usually hurt by land subsidies. This ahs increased the culture of dependency. They work on commercial firms in order to survive. Those who farm do that on land which they have rented and which is still not enough to fulfill their domestic needs.

Works cited

Barrett, Kirwan. The Distribution of U.S. Agricultural Subsidies, 2007

Spitze, Robert. Harold, Halcrow. Joyce, Allen-Smith. Food and Agricultural Policy. McGraw-Hill College, 1994. ISBN 0-07-025800-7.

Joshua, Graff Zivin.  Jeffrey, Perloff. The Intended and Unintended Effects of U.S. Agricultural and biotechnology; ch.1.University of Chicago Press, 2012, p-15


Emergent Strategies

Learning organization is a concept which has gained a lot of popularity in the new corporate world. A learning organization is that which provides its employees with the opportunity to access important practical information/knowledge which in return can empower them to improve themselves and the performance of the organization.

My organization has a practical way of sharing best practices which help the organization lean from its successes and improve programs. This also improves performance by replicating successes throughout the organization. One way of sharing information in my organization is identifying and solving problems together. The top management and the employees are involved in giving their opinions in dealing with internal organizational problems which arise. The organization also focuses on what the people are doing right, raises the morale of employees and makes the achieving excellence to seem possible (Dess, Lumpkin, Eisner and McNamara, 2012, p. 23).

External factors affect the performance of the organization if not predicted and solved.  Environmental forces which affect performance of the organization include location, consumers, suppliers, competitors and the society. My organization is a multinational organization. Appreciating cultural diversity among our employees has been a way of dealing with societal problems. For example, through information sharing, the organization learns about the consuming culture of people in a certain country. This makes the organization to only market the products which are acceptable in that country. Our marketing department is always on the rise to learn about the consuming power and the rise of competitors in the market. Internal knowledge sharing makes the organization makes solutions on how to deal with competitors and consumer rates. This works well for the organization since the best opinions are put into place (Senge, 1990, p.11).

Before the organization establishes a branch somewhere, the details about the suitability of the location is discussed by the organization’s managers and employees. Everyone gives his/her information/opinion. The delay and high prices from suppliers also affect the organization. This is solved giving opinions on the suitability of the suppliers and if or not the company needs to change the supply chain.

Internal knowledge sharing has worked well for my organization in solving both internal and external organizational issues. It is a learning organization.


Dess, G. Lumpkin, G.T. Eisner, A. and McNamara, G. 2012 Strategic management: text and cases, 6th edition, New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.


Senge, P M. 1990. ‘The leader’s new work: Building learning organizations’, Sloan Management Review, 32(1), p. 7-23.


Personal Statement for Sciences Po University

Since I started to understand myself and things around me, I have been more fascinated by the constantly changing world. This has been triggered by the curiosity of wanting to explore the causes and the results of current and future human interactions. Throughout my teenage years I used to listen to world news through BBC world service. I also was fond of reading recognized journals and magazines. From this background, I have been convinced to pursue a course in world affairs as this would help me gain knowledge that will allow me venture in a wide range of possibilities. Besides, being the first born of a business tycoon, I have learned something about the stock market. I have got knowledge on how businesses interact and respond to strategic threat.

My excellent performance has in school has also convinced me of this. I have maintained a somewhat independent approach to my studies. The subjects I chose had a lot of challenges, but I was focused on obtaining the best knowledge and skills from them. Science subjects have helped me better understand the abstract and the physical world around me.

Part from my academia, my co-curricular activities have encouraged me more to pursue a course in international relations. Being a soccer champion from my school, I have travelled a few countries to represent my school team. While being in foreign countries, my dream and desire to learn more about those countries has never disappeared.  While representing my school, I was interested by different cultures and political government structures those countries have.

I have decided to pursue my degree in international relations in Sciences Po, Paris, France. This is because I also want to understand more on the fascinating culture of France. I also want to deepen my personal and academic understanding of international affairs. Sciences Po is the best school for me to be. Advancing my knowledge on both English and French language will also be of big help to me. Sciences Po offers courses in French and English for all the students majoring in political science or in a related field like international relations.

Being an international school, science Po will give me the chance to interact with both host country and external students. Through this, I will understand more on what happens on international countries. This will increase my knowledge on international affairs. Being in a world that needs qualities such as innovation, imagination, inventiveness and aptitude, Sciences Po will encourage my intellectual courage and increase the ability to cope with complexity and face adversity. Being in international relations profession requires one to have negotiating and decision making skills, express him/herself effectively in both oral and written language, embrace teamwork and be  modern by having knowledge on the use of information and communication technologies. Sciences Po is the best place for me to acquire all this.